Ethereum Essentials

What is the name of the programmer that initially proposed Ethereum in a white paper in 2013, with the goal of building decentralized applications?
What aspect of the Ethereum network, which is embedded within each full Ethereum node, allows smart contracts to be executed and enables decentralized applications to function?
What is the name of Ethereum's native cryptocurrency that is generated by the protocol as a reward to miners in its Proof of Work consensus system, and is also used for paying transaction fees?
What are the 2 types of accounts on the Ethereum blockchain that can hold and send an ETH balance?
What prefix is added to the beginning of all Ethereum addresses?
Every transaction that is performed by the Ethereum Virtual machine (EVM) has a transaction cost, which is roughly proportional to the amount of computing resources that a node must use to perform that operation, and must be paid by the user to the node that records their transaction to the blockchain. 
What do you call the unit of account that is used to calculate how much this transaction fee is in ETH?
Ethereum has an annual cap limit that restricts the supply of new ETH mined to 18 million per year. What is the total maximum supply that Ethereum will be limited to?
What type of algorithm is "Ethash"; Ethereum's consensus algorithm?
Approximately how often is a new block added to the Ethereum blockchain?
What is name of the technical standard used for all smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain to create new fungible tokens?
What is the name of the object-oriented programming language that is used for writing smart contracts on Ethereum?
Transaction fees to send any ERC-20 token must be paid in what currency?