Blockchain Fundamentals

What do you call the series of alphanumeric characters that is saved in a wallet file, is meant to be kept secret, and allows a user to access their cryptocurrency?
The Bitcoin whitepaper was published in 2009 by a person (or group of people) that used the name:
What is the name of the hashing algorithm that is used by the Bitcoin network to encrypt transaction data and to add (mine) new blocks?
The total supply of Bitcoin is limited to how many bitcoins?
A device that contains a copy of the transaction history of the blockchain is called a:
What is the name of the smallest unit of a bitcoin, which equals one hundred millionth of 1 whole bitcoin (0.00000001)?
What do you call a function that converts an input of letters and numbers into an encrypted output of a fixed length?
What do you call the process of adding transaction records (blocks) to a blockchain's existing blocks that contain the ledger of past transactions?
What word is used to describe a blockchain that allows anyone to participate on them, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum?
Proof of Work, Proof of Stake, and Proof of Authority are examples of what kind of algorithm?