The Polkadot blockchain is a multi-chain blockchain that is designed to bundle multiple chains together so that they can be executed in parallel. The goal is for every block on the Polkadot blockchain to contain multiple blocks from other chains. This will enable the network to contain the transaction information from multiple chains and dramatically increase the overall interoperability between different blockchain networks. Polkadot was created by the Web3 Foundation, which is led by Gavin Wood, one of the founders of Ethereum. Polkadot is their flagship project, and aims to solve the issues in the blockchain ecosystem related to disjointed governance and interoperability.
AION calls itself a 3rd generation blockchain network, and is primarily focused on connecting blockchain networks. AOIN aims to solve the interoperability issues facing the various blockchains, and be the connecting bridge between them. AION's cross-chain platform has different consensus mechanisms for interchain and on-chain transactions. The on-chain consensus mechanism combines BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance), dPoS (Delegated Proof-of-Stake) and a new neural network inspired verification algorithm known as Proof-of-Intelligence.
Interchain transactions are managed by bridges. The bridges has a consensus mechanism that is different from the main AION chain, and each bridge is secured by an individual consensus. The bridge validators will be rewarded by interchain transaction fees.